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Du Fu's biography

Du Fu 712-770, ancestor Xiangyang, was born in Gongxian now Henan Province, a great poet of the Tang Dynasty. Tang Suzong Qianyuan first year 758 June to Qianyuan second year 759 autumn, Ren HuazhouDu Gong joined the army. Du Fu was originally a left-hand pick-up in the middle of the DPRK. He was relegated to Huazhou now Hua County for speaking out and provoking the nobles.And "Poetry Fairy" Li Bai Also called "Da Li Du".

After arriving in Huazhou, Du Fu was very distressed and upset. He often traveled to the Zhengxian Pavilion near Xixi near the old official platform in Xinglin Town to relieve his boredom. He was in "Title Zhengxian County Pavilion", "In the poems such as "Early Autumn's Bitter Cases", "Independence", and "Skinny Horse", sighs and indignation are expressed for the frustration of official career, a chilly world, and treacherous behavior.

Despite his personal misfortune, Du Fu is always concerned about the country and the people. He watched the development of the current situation and wrote two articles during this period:"The situation map" and "Five Questions of Huazhou Trial Scholars in the First Year of Qianyuan" provide suggestions for annihilating Anshi rebels and consider how to reduce the burden on the people. When fighting the rebels—the northwestern court of the town made Li Yiye's soldiersWhen crossing the road in Huazhou, he wrote the poem "Viewing the Anxi Soldiers Passing Two Passes to Guanzhong," expressing his patriotic enthusiasm.

At the end of the first year of the Qianyuan period 758, Du Fu temporarily left Huazhou to visit relatives in Luoyang and Yanshi both in Henan Province today. In March of the following year, Tang Jun and Anshi rebels in Lucheng now Anyang, HenanWhen the battle broke out, Tang Jun was defeated. On his way back from Luoyang to Luozhou, Du Fu saw the endless disaster brought by the war and the patriotic behavior of the people to endure the burden of participating in the army. With so much emotion, he created an immortal epic—"Three Officials" "Xin'an Officials", "Shi Jie Officials", "Tongguan Officials" and "Sanbei" "New Marriages", "Chao Laobie", "Homelessness" and returning to HuazhouAnd then revise it as a manuscript.

During the summer of the second year of Qianyuan 759, there was a severe drought in Huazhou and Guanzhong. Du Fu wrote "Sighs in Summer" and "Sighs in Summer Night". When he was worried, he was sad and the refugees in the country were suffering.

After the beginning of autumn this year, Du Fu gave up his slogan for the filthy current politics and gave up his job as an army officer of Huazhou, and went west to Qinzhou now Tianshui, Gansu Province.

Du Fu wrote more than 30 poems during his service in Huazhou.

Du Fu and Li Bai are collectively called "Li Du" [1], in order to be with two other poets Li Shangyin and Du Mu即“小李杜”区别,杜甫 and李白又合称“大李杜”,杜甫也常被称为“老杜”。杜甫 and杜牧是远房宗亲,同为晋朝灭孙吴的大将杜预之后裔(杜甫为杜预二十世孙)。因其诗风沉郁顿挫,忧国忧民,杜甫的诗被称为“诗史”。虽然杜甫在当朝不为世人所知,但经过后世的研究,他的作品最终对中国文学和日本文学产生了深远的影响[2]。他的约1500首 Poetry It has been preserved, and his work collection is "The Collection of Du Gong Bu". His influence in Chinese classical poetry is very far-reaching, and he was called "Poem Sage" by future generations.

The core of his thinking is Confucianism. He has the grand ambition of "to the king and Yao Shun, and then make customs and customs". He loves life, loves the people, and loves the great country of the motherland. He is jealous of hatred, corruption against the court, social lifeThe dark phenomena in China are all criticized and exposed. Before 35 years of age, he studied and traveled. Tianbao arrived in Chang'an during the year, and had nowhere to go. He was stuck for ten years before he got the job of Cao joined the army by the right guard. Anshi Rebellion An LuAfter the outbreak, he was exiled in exile and was captured by the rebels. After he escaped, he was awarded the left by the officials. In the second year of Qianyuan 759, he abandoned the official westward journey and finally settled in Chengdu, where he once lived in Jiannan Festival.Du made Yan Wumuzhong a member of the inspection department's labor department, so he was also known as the Ministry of Labor. In his later years, he moved his family to the east, leaving the state of stagnation kuí for two years on the way and leaving the gorge. Wandering around E, Xiang, and poorDied of illness.

Du Fu is a great realist poet and world cultural celebrity of the Tang Dynasty in China. He experienced the process from prosperity to decline in the Tang Dynasty. Therefore, compared with the poet Xian Li Bai, Du Fu is more concerned about the country and the people.Sympathy for the difficult life. Du Fu was once a left-hand pick-up, a member of the inspection department Waiwailang, so he later called it the Department of Labor.

His poems are distinguished by ancient styles and rhythmic poems, with various styles. He accurately summarizes his own style of work with the words "depressed and frustrated", and mainly depresses. Du Fu lived in the historical period of the Tang Dynasty from prosperity to decline.Poetry often involves social turmoil, political darkness, and the suffering of the people. His poems reflect the social contradictions and the sufferings of the people at that time, so he is known as "the history of poetry." Du Fu worried about the country and the people, noble personality, and superb poetry.More than 1,500, many of them are famous classics, such as "Sanli" and "Sanbei", and "Donggongjiji" handed down; "Sanli" is "Shiyan officials" "Xin'an officials""And" Shuguanguan "," Sanbei "is" new marriage "," Homeless "and" Chuo Laobei ". Du Fu's number of poems is the most extensive and extensive in Tang poetry, and is one of the most outstanding poets in the Tang Dynasty., Has a profound impact on future generations.

Du Fu and Du Mu are distant relatives of the distant family. They are also descendants of the dynasty of the Jin Dynasty. They are descendants of Du Yu Du Fu is the twentieth grandson of Du Yu. Du Fu ’s ancestors are the prestigious Du Yu of the Jin Dynasty.Gong Ling. Grandfather was a poet of the early Tang Dynasty. Du Yanyan The official to the staff member Wai Lang and has his own autobiography. His father Du Xian had the role of heavenly order. In his youth, Du Fu traveled around Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Hebei, Shandong, and met with Li Bai twice.Friendship.

Du Fu is good at applying many systems of classical poetry and developing it creatively. He is a pioneer in the style of Xinyuefu poetry. His Yuefu poems contributed to the development of the Xinyuefu movement in the middle Tang Dynasty.It is also a poem and a history, spreading the story, and focusing on the manoeuvre of the whole chapter, marking the high achievement of the Chinese poetry art. Du Fu also showed significant creativity in the May 7th rule, accumulating about the rhythm, the countermeasures, and refining the characters.Complete artistic experience, such as refining sentences, has brought this genre to the stage of full maturity. The "Du Gong Bu Ji" is handed down.

[Life]

Du Fusheng was born in "Feng Confucianism and Officials" and has a literary tradition Family Chinese, the grandson of the famous poet Du Shenyan. He learned poems at the age of seven, became famous at the age of fifteen, and was not motivated in his entire life. He has only done some minor officials such as left pickles, although he was called "poem saint" in later generations, and poetry was called"History of Poetry" did not get people's attention at the time of the Tang Dynasty. There is a play "Six Jueju Part Two" which wrote "Four Great Heroes of the Early Tang Dynasty": "Wang Yanglu Luo was in the same style and was light and light."Er Cao disappeared with his name and did not waste the rivers and rivers. "Among them, there are poets who compare themselves. Du Fu's experience and poetry creation can be divided into four periods :

1. During the period of reading and roaming before 35 years old, the so-called "loose Qi Zhao, Qiu Ma is quite mad".

In the 19th year of Kaiyuan when he was 20 years old, he started to roam Wu Yue, and returned to Luoyang after 5 years. He did not rank, and then Du Fu roamed Qi Zhao again. Later, they met Li Bai in Luoyang, and the two met late and hated.Friendship, then meet again High fitness , The three of them traveled together with Liang and Song now Kaifeng, Shangqiu, and later Li Du went to Qizhou again, and met Donglu after breaking up. Once again, this is the last of "Poem Fairy" and "Poem Saint"See you once.

2. Trapped in Chang'an 35 to 44 years old

During this period, Du Fu first took the exam in Changan and fell first. When he was prime minister Li Linfu In order to achieve the goal of power, he said to Tang Xuanzong that no one was uplifted. He later offered gifts to the emperor and donated gifts to the nobles.It ’s a life of sorrow and lament everywhere, and finally won the post of Cao Junjun mainly guarding the armor weapon and the key officer of the Kufu key led by the right guard. During this period, he wrote"Lirenxing" and other poems that criticize current politics and satire of the rich and powerful. "Five Hundred Words of Yonghuai from Beijing to Fengxian County" is particularly famous, marking a new understanding of the political and social realities of the court after ten years of hard life in Chang'an.Xuanzong held three grand ceremonies one after another from 8 to 10th of January 751. Du Fu took this opportunity to write three "Gifts to the Rites". Xuanzong enlisted to be set up, but it was not reused.

Third, the period of trapping thieves and official positions forty-five to forty-eight years old

The Anshi Rebellion broke out, Tongguan fell behind, Du Fu settled his home in Yinzhou, and went to Su Zong alone. He was captured by Anshi rebels and taken to Chang'an. He faced chaotic Chang'an and heard the news that the army repeatedly defeated and wrotePoems such as "Moon Night", "Spring Hope", "Aijiangtou", etc. Later he fled to Feng Xiangxing and made left-hand relics. Because of his loyalty, his letter was deprecated for the Prime Minister Fang Ye to join the army Fang YeKindness and generosity are typical intellectuals, but it is unrealistic. They fought against the rebels and adopted the Spring and Autumn tactics. However, they were defeated and Su Zong was guilty.He wanted to ask for sin, but got rid of it. Later, he recorded his experience in a poem form and became his immortal works, namely "San Li" and "San Bi".

IV. Southwest Wandering Period forty-eight to fifty-eight

With the defeat of the officers and soldiers in Xiangzhou and famine in Guanzhou in the nine quarters, Du Fu abandoned his official and fled with his family and the people. He passed through Qinzhou, Tonggu and other places to Chengdu and lived a relatively stable life. Yan WuAfter entering the dynasty, the warlord in the middle of Shu made a mess, and he drifted to Zizhou and Luzhou. Later, Yan Wu took a photo of Chengdu for Ji Nan Jieduo, Du Fu sent to Yan Wu, and Yan Wu died.Then, he drifted to Hubei and Hunan and died on the Xiangjiang River. During this period, his works include "Spring Night Rain", "The Thatched House Is Broken by Autumn Wind", "Shu Xiang", "Wen Guanjun Takes Henan and Hebei", ""Climbing", "Deng Yueyang Tower" and many other famous works. The most famous poem is: "There are millions of houses in Andeguang, and the people of the world are all happy." And in the "Climbing": "The endless falling trees are endless."The Yangtze River is rolling" is an eternal song.

[Cause of Du Fu's death]

For many years, the biggest doubt Du Fu left for future generations is the cause of his death.

The literature and history scholars have proposed five causes of death for Du Fu's cause of death, and each holds a word, which is thought-provoking.

I. Sickness

Reading through Mo Fufeng and Tong Qiang's "Biography of Du Fu", about Du Fu's death, the book reads as follows: "The winter is here, the poet is ill. Ill be in a boat traveling to Yueyang .... aThe superstar has fallen in this infinite loneliness and loneliness. "Tianjin People's Publishing House, January 2001, p. 316.

two, drowning

This claim originated from the "Du Shi Yi Supplement" written in the name of Li Guan, a fake Tang dynasty. Since its introduction, later scholars in different dynasties have criticized this claim and clearly pointed out that the "hardInjury ", Tang Xuanzong died in the first year of Baoying, that is, in 762 AD, how could he give the dead son Medu in 770?

III. Sinking in the water and dying

This story originated from the pseudo-Tang Dynasty Han Yu Title Du Zimei's Grave, written in the name, proposes "Three Sages" Qu Yuan , Li Bai, Du Fu the same statement. "The three were sinking into Huaisha, which is obviously an imagination with no basis at all.

four, food poisoning died

This is the famous modern scholar Guo Moruo. This statement by Guo Moruo is also speculative, and there is almost no literature as a purely personal literary creation.

Five, died of indigestion

This is more credible. Du Fu ’s death and hunger have a constant connection. After leaving Sichuan, Du Fu lived in Hunan and was hungry for 9 days because he was besieged by a sudden flood. The local magistrate saved Du Fu with a boat.Back, entertaining him with beef and white wine, a rare occasion for Du Fu, who had not eaten for a long time, had an upset stomach, and eventually died of indigestion.

[Du Fu's family]

[wife]

At the age of 30, Du Fu temporarily interrupted his roaming between Qi Luyan and Zhao, returned to Luoyang, built Luhun Mountain Villa under the first mountain in the northwest of Yanshi County, and then married Hongnong County Tianbao reformed the spirit in the first yearBao County Si Nong Shaoqing Yang Yizhi's daughter is a wife. Si Nong Shaoqing is the deputy minister in charge of agriculture and finance, and Du Fu's family who is an official for generations can be described as a housekeeper. The wife is more than ten years younger and wants to be a knowledgeable and intelligent person.Virtuous lady. Unfortunately, Du Fu did not use his generous handwriting to make a biography of his beloved wife. Even we could not know the name of Mrs. Yang, but Du poetry mentioned her in many places. Although she only spoke a word, half a claw, but fromIn that affectionate pen and ink, we ca n’t help but admire the great woman behind Shi Sheng who is full of hardships.

[children]

They have two sons, Zongwen and Zongwu, and another daughter, Fenger.

[Personal Influence]

Du Fu is good at using many systems of classical poetry and developing it creatively. He is the opener of Han Yuefu poetry. His Yuefu poems contributed to the development of the Xin Yuefu movement in the middle Tang Dynasty.It is also a poem and a history, spreading the story, and focusing on the manoeuvre of the whole chapter, marking the high achievement of the Chinese poetry art. Du Fu also showed significant creativity in the May 7th rule, accumulating about the rhythm, the countermeasures, and refining the characters.Complete artistic experience such as refining sentences has brought this genre to a fully mature stage.

Du Fu AD 712-770 AD, with beautiful words, often calls himself Shaolin Yelao in poems. He was born in a landlord family of "Confucianism and Guardian" in Gongxian now Gongyi, Henan. Wu Zetian At the time, the famous poet, Father Xian had been a county magistrate of Sima and Fengtian in Luzhou, so he also enjoyed privileges such as not paying tax and military service. But he experienced ups and downs throughout his life.

He started to chant poems at the age of seven. "Reading and breaking tens of thousands of books" and "Communicating tens of thousands of books often recite" prepared sufficient conditions for his creation.

From the age of 20, he started to travel south to Wu Yue and later to Qi Zhao. During the ten-year strong tour, he enjoyed the famous mountains and rivers of the motherland, which not only enriched his life, but also broadened his vision and mind, So that his early poetry also has a fairly strong romanticism.

Tang Xuanzong Tianbao five years AD 746, 35-year-old Du Fu came to Changan, the next year he participated in the test under Tang Xuanzong, because of the traitor Li Linfu stalked from it, none of the candidates accepted. Since thenEnterprising without a door, living a humiliating life of "chasing the rich children's gate, twilight following the fat horse dust". This also made him see the suffering of the lower people and the sin of the ruling class, so he wrote "Army", ""Beautiful People", "Go to Fengxian Yonghuai" and other realistic masterpieces.

It wasn't until the 14th year of Tianbao AD 755 that he was awarded the position of "You Wei led the army to Cao Shenjun" and was responsible for guarding the Bingjia warehouse. In the same year, the "Anshi Rebellion" broke out, at this time Du Fu was exploring Fengxian Pucheng, Shaanxi.In the second year, he settled his family members in Fuxian Village in Shaanxi and went to Su Zong who was ascended the throne in Lingwu Gansu Province. He was captured by rebels on the way and taken to Changan after the fall. During this time, heWitnessed the atrocities of rebel killing and ransacking and the suffering of the people. It wasn't until April of the second year of German AD 757 that he ventured to escape to Fengxiang Fengxiang County, Shaanxi Province, where he was awarded the left.Shangshu rescued Fang Yan and was relegated to Huazhou Si Gong to join the army. Since then, he has been repeatedly criticized and has a deeper understanding of the sufferings of the people. He has heard and witnessed the social reality and wrote "Spring Hope", "Aijiangtou",Northern Expedition, "San Li", "San Bi", etc. provided the material and brought his poems to the peak of realism.

"Sad life is full of people, because people travel far away." In 759 AD, he abandoned his official post, went west with his family, after several rounds, and finally arrived in Chengdu. With the help of Yan Wu and others, he was at the bank of Huanhua River in the west of the city., Built a thatched cottage, known as "Du Fu Thatched Cottage", also known as "Huanhua Thatched Cottage". It was later recommended by Yan Wu as a festival capital, and the family lived in Fengjie County, Sichuan. Two years later, he left Fengjie County to Jiangling and Hengyang.Leaving. Five years 770 of the Dazong Period of the Tang Dynasty, the poet died of illness in a small boat on the Xiangjiang River. During his eleventh year of wandering southwest, he lived a life of "people-like life", but wrote theMore than a thousand poems such as "Songs Broken by the Autumn Wind", "Wen Guanjun Takes Hebei, Henan", "Qiu Xing", "Sui Yanxing", etc.

[Du Fu Thought]

The core of Du Fu ’s thought is the Confucian benevolence and political thought. His poetic style is gloomy and frustrated. He is worried about the country and the people. He has the grand ambition of “to the king, Yao Shun, and customs,” he loves life, the people, and the country.He is jealous and hateful, exposing and criticizing the corruption of the court and the dark phenomenon in social life. He sympathizes with the people and even willingly makes sacrifices to save the people's suffering. Therefore, his poetry creation always runs through worrying about the country and the people.This is the main line, with the most common people as the protagonist. This shows the greatness of Du Fu. His poems have rich social content, strong colors of the times, and clear political tendencies, which truly and profoundly reflect the political current affairs and historical events in the historical era before and after the Anshi Rebellion.The vast picture of social life is therefore called a generation of "poetic history". Du's poetic style is basically "deep and frustrated", the language and text structure are full of changes, and they emphasize the refinement of words and sentences. At the same time, his poems have both body and style.In addition to the Five Ancient, Seven Ancient, Five Rhythms, and Seven Rhythms, I also wrote a lot of rhythms and carcasses. There are also a variety of artistic techniques, which are Tang poetry.An integrator of art. Du Fu also inherited the spirit of Hanfu and Yuefu's "feeling sad and happy", and got rid of the shackles of the ancient Yuefu title, and created a lot of new topics, namely, famous articles, without reliance.Yuefu, such as the famous "Sanli" and "Sanbie", etc. After death, Fan Huang, Han Yu, etc. Yuan Yuan , Bai Juyi People's great praise. Du Shi had a profound influence on Yuan Bai ’s "Xinlefu Movement" 's literary and artistic thinking and Li Shangyin's allegorical current affairs poems. However, Du Shi has received extensive attention since the Song Dynasty. Wang Yuzhang , Wang Anshi , Su Shi , Huang Tingjian , Lu You Some people highly respect Du Fu, Wen Tianxiang We even use Du Shi as the spiritual force to adhere to the national integrity. The influence of Du Shi has been beyond the scope of literature and art from ancient times to the present. For details of his life, see "Old Tang Book" Volume 190.

Although Du Fu is a realist poet, he also has a wild and uninhibited side. It is not difficult to see Du Fu's grandeur from his masterpiece "Drinking Eight Immortals"